In February 2020, a shocking video began to circulate on Chinese social media.
A group of African children are being instructed, by a voice off-camera, to chant phrases in Chinese.
The kids repeat the words with smiles and enthusiasm — but they don't understand that what they're being told to say is "I am a black monster and my IQ is low".
The clip ignited outrage in China and beyond.
But no-one ever answered the crucial questions: Why was this filmed? Where was it shot? Who made it?
These questions send BBC Africa Eye and BBC Eye Investigations reporters Runako Celina and Henry Mhango on a journey into a Chinese video-making industry that exploits vulnerable children across the continent.
Investigated and Reported by Runako Celina and Henry Mhango
Filmed, Produced and Directed by Chiara Francavilla
Assistant Producer – Runako Celina
Executive Producer – Dan Adamson
Open Source Investigators – Aliaume Leroy and Edward Tian
Film Editor – Matthew Bradley
Motion Design – Emile Costard
Camera – Godfrey Badebye
Additional camera – Jake Tacchi, Michael Jenkins, Kevin Okai, Lameck Luhanga
Online Editor – Chris Stott
Dubbing Mixer- Jez Spencer
Colour Grader – Boyd Nagle
Reversioning Producer – Anna Payton
Digital Producer – Suzanne Vanhooymissen
Social Media Producer – Anusha Kumar
Impact Producer – Courtney Bembridge
Production Managers – Simon Frost and Helen Swindells
Production Coordinators – Charlotte Fraser, Emily Dubois, Neil Williams, Negin Vaziri
Digital Technician – David Smith
Production Support – Lonjezo Blake
Translators – Adrian Mvula, Alefa Bisiyere, Clifford Munthali, Florence Phiri, Steven Mkandawire, Towera Moyo, Yang Siong Sim
Archive – SVT- Sveriges Television AB, Kobina Ackon aka Wode Maya
Original Music – Madalitso Band
Drivers – Blessings Emmanuel Bonface and Hillary Mwagomba
BBC Africa Eye Editor – Tom Watson
Head of Investigations – Marc Perkins